Introduction to the Epistle to the Philippians

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Pastor Scott L. Harris

Grace Bible Church, NY

Introduction to the Epistle to the Philippians

Philippians

This morning we begin our study of Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians. This is
a study that I have been looking foreword to for quite some time, yet I am glad
that I was not able to start it sooner. As I began preparation for this new
sermon series, I started with examining and outlining the text as well as
reading through several commentaries. I also started reading another book at
about the same time as part of my general reading that was not related to my
study of Philippians. Yet, as it is turned out, this book has been very helpful
in giving me additional understanding of the joy that God desires us to have in
our lives and its source in Him. That is also the theme of the book of
Philippians.

That Jesus is a central theme of Philippians is easily seen in that Paul
refers to him a total of 56 separate times in the 104 verses of the book. That
joy is also a theme of Philippians is seen in that the word joy or rejoice
occurs 16 times in 14 different verses.

In the United States, “the pursuit of happiness,” (which occurs in the
preamble to the Declaration of Independence), is considered to be a fundamental
right. Americans, like most people, pursue happiness as best they know how. The
economic prosperity of our nation and our political freedoms make us the envy of
most of the world. But that prosperity and freedom has not translated into
Americans being a happy people. In fact, I think to be safe to say that a large
portion of our population is not happy.

The problem is that happiness is like chasing the end of a rainbow. About the
time you think you have reached it, it shifts and moves away. Happiness, like
the wind, may blow through but it cannot be captured and held. Happiness is
totally dependent upon circumstances and state of mind regarding those
circumstances. For the most part, Americans have bought into the lies of
materialism and/or hedonism. We think we will be happy by getting more stuff or
by making our lives more comfortable and experiencing maximum pleasure. We think
that if we can just do that one more thing, we will be happy. It is now five
weeks since Christmas. How many of you are still has happy today as you were
then because of what you received on that day? How many of you have already
broken or lost what you received? How many of you already take for granted or
are bored with what you received? Material things simply cannot provide
long-term happiness.

The same is true for pleasure. There’s nothing wrong with enjoying a good
meal, and there are special meals each of us will look forward to, but the meals
are soon consumed and the pleasure soon passes. The same is true for any
physical pleasure. Mental and emotional pleasures also quickly fade. Fame and
power rise and fall quickly and with them the pleasure they bring. Many people
will be very happy about whoever wins the Super Bowl tonight, but how long will
that last for anyone? Those that win the game will soon be looking for happiness
in something else. What do you do after you have reached the top? Will even
Disney World satisfy?

My purpose is not to disparage the pursuit of happiness, nor to even suggest
that enjoying the pleasures that life can bring is all bad. My point is simply
to show that these are not enough to satisfy the soul. It is fine to be happy,
but the soul needs something that is more stable. The soul needs joy that can
exist in any circumstance. The soul needs joy that is present regardless of
economic condition and even in the midst of physical or emotional pain. Paul
explains this kind of joy and its source in the book of Philippians.

In order to understand and gain the full impact of all that Paul says in this
book, we need to know something about the circumstances in which Paul is writing
this letter, and something about the condition of the people he is writing to.
This morning I will be giving you this background as well as a brief overview of
Philippians.

 

Author

There is no doubt that the Apostle Paul is the writer of this epistle, for he
so states in the very first verse of the letter. “Paul and Timothy, bond
servants of Christ Jesus, to all the Saints in Christ Jesus who were in
Philippi.”
This letter reflects Paul’s style, mind, and character, and there
could be no motive for anyone else to forge it.

Place of Writing and Date

The first thing to note in determining when and where Paul wrote this letter
is to take note of the fact that he is writing from prison (1:12). While there
have been proposals that Paul may have written this letter from either Caesarea
or Ephesus, there is no strong evidence for these ideas while the overwhelming
evidence is that Paul wrote from Rome.

Why was Paul in prison? The book of Acts tells of several times that Paul was
thrown into prison. In fact, he had been put into prison in Philippi because he
had cast out the demon from a fortune telling slave and her master reacted to
the loss of her value to them by dragging Paul Silas before the authorities and
lying about them (Acts 16). The Lord opened the jail that night and then used
these circumstances to bring the Philippian jailer and his household to
salvation in Christ through Paul’s preaching. Some have thought that Paul may
have been put into prison in Ephesus, but there’s no strong evidence for this.

The circumstances that led to the imprisonment mentioned in this letter
occurred when Paul returned to Jerusalem after his third missionary journey.
When Paul went to the temple to fulfill a vow he had made, his enemies caused a
riot seeking to kill him. Roman soldiers rescued Paul and held him in prison to
find out the accusations. He was moved to Caesarea for his safety after a plot
to murder him was discovered. He remained there for more than two years because
Paul would not pay a bribe to Felix, the Governor. The next Governor, Festus,
also kept Paul in prison as a favor to the Jews, and Paul finally appealed his
case to Caesar. He was then eventually sent to Rome by ship where he was in
prison for two more years awaiting trial.

Several statements in Philippians indicate that Paul was writing from Rome.
First, Paul’s states that his imprisonment had an impact on the praetorian guard
(1:13). This is the guard unit that was charged with protecting Caesar. He also
sends greetings from the saints of Caesar’s household (4:22). Both of these
groups would have been Rome. Paul’s statements in Philippians show that he knew
that death was a possibility (1:20-23), though he was confident he would be set
free to continue ministry including coming to them again (1:24-26). This better
fits the situation in Rome where the outcome would be final, rather than
Caesarea where he could have still appealed to Caesar. In addition, while Paul
would have guards watching him in any prison, he apparently had a lot of freedom
while writing Philippians to receive visitors and to preach. This better fits
Rome where he stayed in his own rented quarters and was welcoming all who came
to him, preaching the kingdom God and teaching (Acts 28:30-31). The year would
be about 61 A.D.

It is very important to keep Paul’s circumstances in mind throughout the
study of this book. Here is a man who has been unjustly put in prison, and he
may have already been in prison for up to four years. While he believes that he
will be released, he is also acutely aware that the judgment could go against
him and he could die. Yet, this man is full of joy. That is one of the reasons
Philippians is such a powerful book in expressing how to have joy in all
circumstances.

The Philippians

It is also important to note the relationship and condition of the
Philippians Church. Some nine or 10 years earlier, Paul’s first trip to Philippi
was on his second missionary journey. The events are recorded in Acts 16. Paul
had been visiting the churches in central Asia Minor (modern Turkey) that he had
established on his first missionary journey. He desired to go to Bythinia to the
north but the Holy Spirit was not permitting it. God then gave Paul a vision
directing him to go to Macedonia. Paul did this and landed at Neapolis and from
there went to Philippi.

It was Paul’s practice to first go to the synagogue and present the gospel of
Jesus Christ to the Jews in that city, but there was no synagogue in Philippi
indicating there were few if any Jews there. Paul went out by the riverside
supposing he would find a place of prayer and began speaking to the women who
were assembled there (vs. 13). It was here that the first European convert to
Christianity was made when the Lord opened the heart of Lydia and she responded
to the gospel preached by Paul (vs. 14). Her household also responded and they
were all baptized (vs. 15). Soon the Philippian jailer and his household were
also saved and apparently others as well (Acts 16:40). It is possible that
Paul’s companion, Luke, stayed in Philippi for some period of time. If true,
this would explain their maturity and the closeness between them and Paul. (Luke
stops using the pronoun “we” from chapter 17 through 19. It is picked up again
in 20:6 as Paul departs from Philippi). About five years later, Paul was again
in Philippi as one of his stops during his third missionary journey. It does not
appear that he spent much time there on his first visit there on this journey,
though he did “give them much exhortation” (Acts 20:1). He appears to
have spent more time there on the return trip since he waited there until after
the days of Unleavened Bread before sailing from Philippi to Troas (Acts 20:6).

One other thing we should also note about the Philippians is that they were
both poor and generous. Lydia, who was a seller of purple, and therefore
relatively wealthy, would have been an exception to the general economic status
of the Philippian Christians. Paul comments in 2 Corinthians 8:1,2 that the
churches of Macedonia joyfully gave out of their deep poverty beyond their
ability to relieve the poor in Jerusalem. Paul had also been the recipient of
their generosity (2 Cor. 11:9; Phil. 4:15).

Philippi

The city of Philippi itself was very strategic in reaching Macedonia and all
of Europe. It was founded by the great Macedonia King Philip II, the father of
Alexander the Great. It was on or near the site of an older Thracian settlement,
Crenides, so named for its springs. It was located on the alluvial plane of
Gangites river that flowed out of a pass through the Balkan mountains. Though
the plane was fertile and there were gold and silver mines in the vicinity, it
was this pass through the mountains that gave the city its importance for the
great high road between Europe and Asia passed through it. At that time of the
Romans it was called the Egnatian road. The same thoroughfare could become a
“gospel Highway” by establishing a church there.

It was at this location and 42 B.C. that the Romans republic forces under
Brutus and Cassius were defeated by the Roman Imperial forces under Marcus
Antonius and Octavian (who became Caesar Augustus). Antonius and Octavian then
established Philippi as a Roman colony. In a real sense, this made the city an
outpost of Rome itself. The Philippian citizens were also Roman citizens. The
city used the Latin language and coinage, its civil leaders were appointed from
Rome, they were independent of the provincial government, and they were exempt
from certain taxes. They were very proud of this status. It is with this in mind
that Paul makes reference to Christians having their citizenship in heaven
(3:20).

Purpose

The particular occasion for Paul writing this letter to the Philippians is to
thank them for their generosity in supporting him both financially and with the
ministry of the Epaphroditus. He had been sent by the Philippians to minister to
Paul in his Roman imprisonment, but he had become very sick, even to the point
of death (2:27). This news had gotten back to the Philippians and it caused
Epaphroditus distress. He had recovered and Paul was sending him back with the
thank you letter.

But Paul sent back more than just a thank you, for he desired to minister to
them and let them know how God was using even his difficult circumstances for
good. This would then enable them to rejoice with him. He also encouraged them
to continue in their faithful walk with the Lord as well as be watchful for
dangers that would disrupt its unity including interpersonal conflict.

Overview

What can we expect to learn over the next seven or eight months as we study
the book of Philippians?

The major lesson that we will learn will be the practical application of our
relationship to the Lord to daily life. The book of Philippians shows that
Christians should live joyfully in peace because of Christ regardless of any
particular circumstance. Even as Christians, it is easy for us to get caught up
in our circumstances and lose the proper perspective much like Peter in Matthew
14.

In Matthew 14 we are told the story of when the disciples were in a boat on
the sea of Galilee during a storm and they saw Jesus walking on the water toward
them. Jesus told them to, “Take courage, it is I; do not be afraid.”
Peter answered, Lord, if it is You, command me to come to You on the water.”
Jesus told him to, “Come,” and Peter got out of a boat and started
walking on the water to Jesus. Peter was doing great until he took his eyes off
Jesus and started looking at the circumstances again. The wind was blowing and
he became afraid and then started to sink. Jesus rescued him and said, “O you
of little faith, why did you doubt?”
The circumstances had not changed, but
Peter’s perspective did, which is why he doubted and began to sink.

Through our study of Philippians we will learn the principles we need to
apply to keep the proper perspective as well as see them being lived out in the
examples of Paul, Timothy and the Philippian believers. As we follow those
examples and apply the principles in our own lives we will become more joyful
and peaceful regardless of whatever particular circumstances we might find
ourselves in. That does not mean we will not have negative emotions, but it does
mean that we can work through them as we see God’s hand at work. We do not have
to live in depression or on the emotional roller coaster that characterizes so
many in our society. Our joy and peace will be deep and abiding instead of the
false face put on by many to hide how they really feel.

For example, in chapter one we find that Paul is joyful even though he is in
prison. It is not that he is happy about being in prison, but rather he sees how
God is using it for the greater progress of the gospel (1:12). There are those
that are preaching specifically thinking they will cause Paul distress in his
imprisonment, but Paul is joyful simply that Christ is being proclaimed even if
the motives are bad (1:15-18). It is this kind of perspective that enables Paul
to encourage the Philippians that he was confident that God who had begun a good
work in them would complete it until the day of Christ Jesus (1:6).

Here are some of the rest of the things we will learn in each chapter of our
study of Paul’s letter to the Philippians.

In Chapter 1 we will first learn a lot more about Paul and Timothy. Paul
included Timothy in the greeting, and we will do a brief biographical sketch of
both so we might better understand them. Both of these men were greatly used by
the Lord and are excellent examples for us in how to live and follow the Lord.
These heroes of the faith stand in stark contrast to those our society generally
considers to be heroes – sports figures, actors and actresses, politicians, etc.
– simply because they are famous or powerful. Heroes should be people of
integrity and character worthy of emulation. Paul and Timothy are such people.

Chapter 1 also introduces us to proper church structure. The letter is
addressed to saints, overseers and deacons. Tragically there is much confusion
in this area in many churches because they follow traditions developed by men
rather than the Scriptures themselves. Roman Catholicism has elevated the term
“saint” to refer to someone who passed the qualifications for canonization as
pre-eminent for holiness. We will see that “saint” actually refers to any true
Christian. The term “overseer” or “bishop” has been elevated in many
denominations to someone who oversees many churches whereas it is actually, as
we shall see, an equivalent term for a pastor or an elder. Many groups also
elevate “Deacon” to an office of power whereas it is actually an office of
service. These may seem like minor issues until you find out that they change
not only how a church operates, but also the perception of the church’s purpose.

Other things that we will learn in chapter 1 include how to participate with
missionaries in their ministry; how God’s sovereignty increases ourtrust and
confidence in the future; how to pray properly for those you’re ministering to;
and how to be joyful when persecuted. Paul was able to do these things because
of how he understood his life and its purpose.

People generally live for themselves. They will extend themselves for those
they love such as family members and those that love them, but that is usually
the limit. People are also generally very protective of their life because they
fear death. Paul was different on both accounts. His life was so wrapped up in
serving Christ that he states in verse 21, “for me, to live is Christ, and to
die is gain.”
He not only does not fear death, but looks forward to it
because he knows he would then be with Christ. At the same time, he desires to
serve Christ and remain in the flesh in order to have a continuing ministry to
other people. We will learn how we can also gain this perspective in our own
lives.

Finally, in chapter 1 we find that Paul gives a challenge to the Philippians
that they stand firm in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the
faith of the gospel.
This unity was necessary for many reasons including
being able to endure in the same manner as Paul the persecution that was to come
upon them. It is no different for us. We also need to stand firm in one spirit
to and with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel, for we can
be sure that we will also face persecution. That is not said to be an alarmist,
but it is the reality that Jesus warned all his followers. In John 16:33 Jesus
said, “In this world you have tribulation, but take courage; I have overcome
the world.”
We have seen an incredible loss of religious freedom in the
United States in the last generation with a corresponding increase in
anti-Christian sentiment and actions in society and in government. How severe
future persecution may become in this nation is an unknown, but you should be
aware that Christians have already been thrown into jail for the sake of
righteousness and for preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. But even if physical
persecution does not occur in the immediate future for Christians in the United
States, all of us will experience verbal persecution. Jesus prepared us for this
by what he said Matthew 5:11-12, “Blessed are those who have been persecuted
for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. Blessed are
you when men cast insults at you, and persecute you, and say all kinds of evil
against you falsely, on account of Me. Rejoice, and be glad, for your reward in
Heaven is great, for so they persecuted the prophets who were before you.”

We will learn how to do this from the book of Philippians.

In chapter 2 Paul explains that the basis of being of the same mind,
maintaining the same love, being united in spirit, and intent on the same
purpose is our humility. We are to regard one another as more important than
ourselves and lookout for the interests of others rather than just our own. Paul
then uses the supreme example of humility which is Jesus Christ who set aside
His glory in Heaven to become a man and die on the Cross. Jesus did this with
full expectation of God highly exalting Him afterward. Every knee shall bow and
confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of the Father. From this example
we not only learn extremely important theological truths about Jesus, but the
pattern is set for us to follow in how we are to deal with one another.

God is also doing His work in us. Therefore, there is no reason for us to
grumble, complain, or dispute with one another. Instead, our godly behavior is
to appear as lights in the world in the midst of a crooked and perverse
generation. This is also a cause for rejoicing. The examples of Timothy and
Epaphroditus flesh out the reality of these truths.

In chapter 3, Paul warns about the “dogs,” “evil workers, ” and the “false
circumcision,” all references to false religious leaders. We also must beware of
such people. We should not be impressed by a person’s self acclaimed religious
credentials. Paul counted his own as rubbish. The only genuine credential is
found in a life that presses on for the prize of the upward call of God in
Christ Jesus. This is a life lived as a citizen of Heaven while here on earth.

We will learn not only how to recognize such false religious leaders, but
also how to avoid the trap they have fallen into. We need to make sure we are
living our lives for the right purpose, and that we’re reaching for the correct
prize. We will also learn how to keep from becoming self-righteous ourselves,
but rather tender hearted even toward those who become apostate.

Finally, in chapter 3, we will find out what it means to have our citizenship
in heaven and the wonderful hope we have in the return of the Lord Jesus Christ
from Heaven. It is always encouraging to consider the promises God has made to
us for our eternal future, and what that will be like.

In chapter 4, Paul encourages two women who are in conflict to live in
harmony in the Lord. We will spend some time in learning how to work through
interpersonal conflict so that we might glorify our God. Often it takes help
from others, just as it did for these two women.

We will also learn in chapter 4 about proper prayer. Too many people treat
prayer as a wish list because they really do not understand the purpose of
prayer. And the reason they do not understand the purpose of prayer is that they
really do not understand God. He is not a cosmic Genie who exists to grant our
every whim of desire. He is the self-sufficient God that created all things for
His own glory, and yet desires for his adopted children to talk with Him. We
will learn how to properly talk with Him.

Paul also addresses having a proper mindset. Christians wonder at times why
they struggle so much in living the Christian life and lack peace. We will learn
how to control our minds and gain the peace of God which surpasses all
comprehension.

We will also learn the secret of contentment in all circumstances. It is
important to note that Paul learned it. It did not come automatically, but was
gained over time in the midst of the things that he experienced, both good and
bad.

And finally we will learn the importance of giving with graciousness and
receiving with thankfulness. Both are important lessons in living a joyful life
in the Lord.

I am looking forward to this study, for I know there is much I still have to
learn about being truly joyful in all circumstances and expressing that joy in a
way that will glorify God. I trust that you are also looking forward to this
study, and that God will use it in a similar way in your own life.