00 OT Survey Introduction

Old Testament Survey Class

Introduction

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1. Languages

Hebrew – family of Semitic languages [Hebrew, Akkadian (Assyrian & Babylonian), Aramaic (Talmud & Targum in Aramaic), Ethiopic, Arabic]

(Yiddish is German written with Hebrew characters. Jehovah is German pronunciation of Yahweh)

Aramaic Daniel 2-7, Ezekiel 4:8-6:18 & 7:12-26

2. Inspiration

Prophets claims

Thus saith the Lord” (413 times in KJV)

“The Word of the Lord” (242 times in KJV)

“the Lord said” (203 times in KJV)

New Testament Claims

2 Peter 1:21

2 Timothy 3:16

Jesus’ Statements

John 10:35 unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken

John 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me

Matt. 5:18 one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.

Matt. 11:335 “For all the prophets and the Law prophesied until John.”

Matt. 23:25 from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah

Jesus quoted extensively from the Hebrew Scriptures (or LXX)

3. Manuscripts, Versions & Transmission

Scribes & Sopharim until ~AD 580, then Masoretes until ~ AD 1,000

(Very careful. Would count letters in each passage – to & from middle and check)

Dead Sea Scrolls – date to ~150-100 B.C. Found near Qumran 1947. Thousands of fragments in clay jars. Previous oldest manuscript was ~AD 980

Samaritan Pentateuch 2 Kings 17:22f (text corrupted to fit their theology)

Aramaic Targums Neh. 8:8

Greek Septuagint (LXX) ~ 250-150 BC – This was the common Bible for Jews at time of Christ. Most frequently quoted version in N. T.

Latin – Old version ~AD 190 by Bishop Victor. ~ 383 – Jerome

Other – Syriac, Coptic, Ethioptic, Arabic, Polygots, etc.

4. Hebrew Canon (divided according to purpose / office of author)

Torah (law – five books of Moses)

The Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, 12 minor prophets)

The Writings (Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, 1 Ezra & 2 Ezra (Nehemiah) and Chronicles. (Includes Daniel because he was a government official, not a prophet)

Apocrypha books not included because of uncertain authorship and/or bad theology

5. Modern Textual Criticism.

Rise of Documentary Hypothesis (~1800 Gedds to ~ 1900 Wellhausen)

Came from those with an anthropomorphic view of universe. Foundations in the Enlightenment that reason and logic were superior to revelation in gaining knowledge. Rejected supernaturalism. Due to the rise of Evolutionary thought that societies & religion evolve (become better). Sought to explain OT by conjecture of later writers adding to earlier writings hence:

J(ehovah) ~ 850 BC

E(lohim) 750 BC & 650 BC

D(euteromic) 621 BC by Josiah

P(riestly) during and after exile period – primarily by Ezra & Nehemiah. All then edited ~ 200 BC and put into final form

Weaknesses: Israel’s culture far more advanced than thought. Religions tend to degenerate into polythesism, not advance to monotheism. It rejects special revelation by its presuppositions. Literary analysis has weak assumptions to start with – i.e. early writers had to be corrected by later writers. Ignores claims of inspiration. Names of God used significantly in Scriptures as purposed by writer for theological reasons as well and literary style – it is speculation at best to attribute these to later editors and redactors. Modern criticism mutilates any flow of meaning from many texts. Examples include Exodus, Genesis 7:16; 26:24 which are all divided

6. Surrounding Nations

Canaanites

 

 

 

 

Egyptians

Old Testament Survey Class

Introduction

1. Languages

Hebrew – family of Semitic languages [Hebrew, Akkadian (Assyrian & Babylonian), Aramaic (Talmud & Targum in Aramaic), Ethiopic, Arabic) (Yiddish is German written with Hebrew characters. Jehovah is German pronounciation of Yahweh

Aramaic – Daniel 2-7, Ezekiel 4:8-6:18 & 7:12-26

2. Inspiration

Prophets claims

 

 

 

New Testament Claims

 

 

 

Jesus’ Statements

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Manuscripts, Versions & Transmission

Scribes & Sopharim

 

Dead Sea Scrolls

 

Samaritan Pentateuch

Aramaic Targums

Greek Septuaging (LXX)

Latin –

Other – Syriac, Coptic, Ethioptic, Arabic, Polygots, etc.

4. Hebrew Canon

Torah

The Prophets

The Writings

 

Apocrypha books not included because of uncertain authorship and/or bad theology

 

 

5. Modern Textual Criticism.

Rise of Documentary Hypothesis

 

    J

    E

    D    

    P

Weaknesses:

 

 

 

 

 

6. Surrounding Nations

Canaanites

 

 

 

 

Egyptians